Misconceptions and gaps in student knowledge can greatly impact student learning. If the gap is too big, students will not be able to relate the content of the ILS to their prior knowledge. This will make it difficult for them to give meaning to the things they do in the ILS.
Apart from raising curiosity and gaining attention, an important element of the Orientation phase is activation of the prior knowledge. This can be done in several ways. For instance, by giving students a quiz with questions that refer to things they have already learned. Or by asking students to make a concept map which graphically organizes the concepts that they already know (and their relationships). By doing this, the students get a kind of mental hooks to which they can connect the new information.